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Vertebrata Palasiatica ›› 2022, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (1): 1-28.DOI: 10.19615/j.cnki.2096-9899.211026

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Revisit of Hsianwenia wui (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) from the Pliocene of Qaidam Basin

BI Dai-Ran1,2, WU Fei-Xiang1,3,*(), WANG Ning4, CHANG Mee-Mann1,2,3, FANG Geng-Yu1,2   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100044
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100049
    3 CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment Beijing 100044
    4 Life Science College, Beijing Normal University Beijing 100091
  • Received:2021-05-11 Online:2022-01-20 Published:2022-02-14

柴达木盆地上新世伍氏献文鱼(Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae)形态学再研究

毕黛冉1,2, 吴飞翔1,3,*(), 王宁4, 张弥曼1,2,3, 房庚雨1,2   

  1. 1 中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所,中国科学院脊椎动物演化与人类起源重点实验室 北京 100044
    2 中国科学院大学 北京 100049
    3 中国科学院生物演化与环境卓越创新中心 北京 100044
    4 北京师范大学生命科学学院 北京 100091
  • 通讯作者: *, wufeixiang@ivpp.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:


The Qaidam Basin is a key area for understanding the paleoenvironmental and faunal history of the Tibetan Plateau. The fossil schizothoracine fish, Hsianwenia wui, evolved extraordinarily thickened bones to adapt to the aridification of the Qaidam Basin during the Pliocene. However, the nature of the bone thickening itself remains elusive. To promote the further investigation of the physiological mechanism of the pachyostosis and the phylogenetic interrelationships of Hsianwenia and all relevant cyprinids, here we present a comprehensive morphological study of Hsianwenia. We have new information on the anterior part of the cranial cavity, a large supraneural 3 in the Weberian apparatus, numerous procurrent caudal fin rays supported by the preural centrum (Pu) 5, and a neural arch on Pu2. We also find the differentiated pattern of the bone-thickening: the pachyostosis exists in the endoskeleton but not in the dermal skeleton; it is more obvious in ventral bones than in dorsal ones, when the thickening is present in the dorsally and ventrally grouped endoskeletal bones (e.g., the epineural and epipleural intermuscular bones). Considering the integrity of musculoskeletal system manipulating the chewing activities, we suspect that the thickened pharyngeal jaws and the hard food processing might be associated with the unique hind protrusion (cleithral “humeral” process) of the dermal pectoral girdle of Hsianwenia.

Key words: Qaidam Basin, Pliocene, Hsianwenia wui, morphology, differential skeletal thickening, chewing system and cleithral humeral process


柴达木盆地是研究青藏高原古环境和动物演化历史的一个关键区域。为了适应上新世时期柴达木盆地环境的干旱化,化石裂腹鱼类伍氏献文鱼(Hsianwenia wui)演化出了异常粗大的骨骼。然而,人们对于这种骨骼增粗现象(pachyostosis)的性质仍知之甚少。为了进一步认识这一特征及其生理学机制,对伍氏献文鱼进行了详尽的形态解剖学工作,并识别出了一些新的信息:脑腔前部分叉的嗅束通道、韦伯氏器上发达的第3髓上骨、第5尾前椎支持众多尾鳍短鳍条以及第2尾前椎上一个附加的髓弓(棘)。此外,发现献文鱼骨骼的增粗存在差异性:该现象仅见于内骨骼,外骨骼(膜质骨)一般未见增粗;在成组增粗的内骨骼(如肌间骨:上髓弓小骨和上肋小骨)中,腹侧骨骼较背侧增粗更为明显。伍氏献文鱼匙骨后缘有一个显著而独特的位于胸鳍上方的“肩突”(humeral process), 对比现生鲤科鱼类咀嚼活动中相关肌肉和骨骼的联动关系,认为这个“肩突”的出现与伍氏献文鱼咽颌骨骼(第五角鳃骨)增粗以及研磨坚硬的食物有关。

关键词: 柴达木盆地, 上新世, 伍氏献文鱼, 形态学, 骨肥厚, 咀嚼系统和匙骨“肩突”

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