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Vertebrata Palasiatica ›› 2022, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (2): 134-168.DOI: 10.19615/j.cnki.2096-9899.220413

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New fossils of small and medium-sized bovids from the Early Site of Shanshenmiaozui in Nihewan Basin, North China

TONG Hao-Wen1,2,3(), ZHANG Bei4, CHEN Xi5, WANG Xiao-Min6   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100044
    2 CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment Beijing 100044
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100049
    4 Beijing Museum of Natural History Beijing 100050
    5 Nanjing Normal University Nanjing 210023
    6 Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Beijing 100710


同号文1,2,3(), 张贝4, 陈曦5, 王晓敏6   

  1. 1 中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所,中国科学院脊椎动物演化与人类起源重点实验室 北京 100044
    2 中国科学院生物演化与环境卓越创新中心 北京 100044
    3 中国科学院大学 北京 100049
    4 北京自然博物馆 北京 100050
    5 南京师范大学 南京 210023
    6 中国社会科学院考古研究所 北京 100710
  • 通讯作者: * tonghaowen@ivpp.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:


Shanshenmiaozui site in Nihewan Basin in North China is a recently discovered Early Pleistocene site which yields rich and diverse mammalian fossils. In the fauna, the small and medium-sized bovid fossils are well represented and can be referred to the following taxa: Spirocerus wongi, Gazella sinensis, Ovis shantungensis and Megalovis piveteaui respectively, among which G. sinensis is the dominate species. S. wongi and G. sinensis are mainly represented by horn-cores and partial skull bones as well as mandibles; in addition, metacarpal and/or metatarsal bones were also recognized for all of the four species. The horn-cores are easy to be identified to the species level, while the dentitions and the postcranial bones underwent a series of examinations and comparisons before getting properly determined and referred to the most approximate taxa. Among the postcranial bones, the metapodials, especially to the metacarpal bones special attentions were paid, which are crucial not only for taxonomic identification, but also for phylogenetic and paleoecological reconstructions; the previously misidentified metapodial specimens in Nihewan fauna were reconsidered in this paper. In the SSMZ fauna, the bovid guild is dominated by Gazella and Bison, which indicates steppe was the most important biome in Nihewan Basin during Early Pleistocene.

Key words: Shanshenmiaozui,Nihewa,China, Early Pleistocene, small-medium bovid, new fossils


山神庙咀是泥河湾盆地新发现的早更新世遗址,该遗址产出丰富多样的哺乳动物化石,其中包括如下属种的中-小型牛科动物:翁氏转角羚羊(Spirocerus wongi), 中国羚羊(Gazella sinensis), 山东绵羊(Ovis shantungensis)和皮氏巨羊(Megalovis piveteaui); 中国羚羊是其中化石最丰富者。前两种化石主要以角心和头骨及下颌为主,此外,4个种都有掌骨和/或蹠骨发现。依据角心特征不难将有关类别鉴定到种一级,而对于牙齿及头后骨骼而言,要想确切鉴定是有一定困难的。在头后骨骼中,掌、蹠骨最值得关注,它不仅对属种鉴定有重要价值,而且对重建系统演化关系及解释古生态适应都是重要证据。修正了前人错误鉴定的泥河湾牛科动物的掌、蹠骨。山神庙咀动物群中的牛科动物以羚羊和野牛为主,表明泥河湾盆地在早更新世期间以草原环境为主导。

关键词: 泥河湾山神庙咀, 早更新世, 中-小型牛科动物, 新化石

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