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Vertebrata Palasiatica ›› 2021, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (3): 245-256.DOI: 10.19615/j.cnki.1000-3118.210304

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Reexamination of the oldest pigeon (Aves: Columbidae) from Asia: Columba congi from the Early Pleistocene of Zhoukoudian, Beijing, China

SHEN Wei1,2,3, Thomas A. STIDHAM1,2,3,*(), LI Zhi-Heng1,2   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100044
    2 CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment Beijing 100044
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100049
  • Received:2020-12-07 Online:2021-07-20 Published:2021-07-20

亚洲最古老鸽子(Columbidae)物种有效性再检验:北京周口店早更新世丛氏原鸽(Columba congi)

沈韦1,2,3, Thomas A. STIDHAM1,2,3,*(), 李志恒1,2   

  1. 1 中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所,中国科学院脊椎动物演化与人类起源重点实验室 北京 100044
    2 中国科学院生物演化与环境卓越创新中心 北京 100044
    3 中国科学院大学 北京 100049


Columba congi is an extinct species that was described as part of the Early Pleistocene (~1.7 Ma) fauna from locality 12 of the UNESCO Zhoukoudian or “Peking Man” site in Beijing, China. Only four partial humeri of the original type series of 11 bones can be located, and the features present in those specimens do not support the original diagnosis. However, our study and redescription shows that the straight and flat margin of the pneumotricipital fossa rim (in ventral view) and the relative distal position of the dorsal supracondylar tubercle may support the continued recognition of C. congi as a valid extinct species. Columba congi appears to be the oldest fossil of Columba in Asia, and it lived during a warmer and wetter period of time of the Pleistocene with a forested Zhoukoudian. Further study of pigeons from all localities at Zhoukoudian should help to resolve questions about pigeon biogeography and evolution, including possibly the time and center of origin of the globally distributedC. livia.

Key words: Zhoukoudian, Early Pleistocene, Columba, Columba congi, humerus


丛氏原鸽(Columba congi)出土于周口店北京猿人遗址早更新世第12地点(~1.7 Ma)。丛氏原鸽共出土11件骨骼碎片,但是由于年代久远,仅遗存4件肱骨标本,且遗存标本的形态学特征并不支持最初的物种鉴定特征。对遗存的4件肱骨标本进行了重新描述和对比,其肱骨气窝腹侧外缘平直和背髁上突位于肱骨更远端的位置这两个特征或为作为灭绝鸽类物种的丛氏原鸽提供稳定的识别特征。丛氏原鸽是亚洲地区已知最古老的鸽属化石,推测其生存于温暖且潮湿的森林环境。对丛氏原鸽的研究或能为解决鸽属物种的古生物地理分布以及目前广泛分布的原鸽的起源等问题提供帮助。

关键词: 周口店, 早更新世, 鸽属, 丛氏原鸽, 肱骨

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