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New fossils of small and medium-sized bovids from the Early Site of Shanshenmiaozui in Nihewan Basin, North China
TONG Hao-Wen, ZHANG Bei, CHEN Xi, WANG Xiao-Min
Vertebrata Palasiatica    2022, 60 (2): 134-168.   DOI: 10.19615/j.cnki.2096-9899.220413
Abstract   (181 HTML34 PDF(pc) (11536KB)(259)  

Shanshenmiaozui site in Nihewan Basin in North China is a recently discovered Early Pleistocene site which yields rich and diverse mammalian fossils. In the fauna, the small and medium-sized bovid fossils are well represented and can be referred to the following taxa: Spirocerus wongi, Gazella sinensis, Ovis shantungensis and Megalovis piveteaui respectively, among which G. sinensis is the dominate species. S. wongi and G. sinensis are mainly represented by horn-cores and partial skull bones as well as mandibles; in addition, metacarpal and/or metatarsal bones were also recognized for all of the four species. The horn-cores are easy to be identified to the species level, while the dentitions and the postcranial bones underwent a series of examinations and comparisons before getting properly determined and referred to the most approximate taxa. Among the postcranial bones, the metapodials, especially to the metacarpal bones special attentions were paid, which are crucial not only for taxonomic identification, but also for phylogenetic and paleoecological reconstructions; the previously misidentified metapodial specimens in Nihewan fauna were reconsidered in this paper. In the SSMZ fauna, the bovid guild is dominated by Gazella and Bison, which indicates steppe was the most important biome in Nihewan Basin during Early Pleistocene.

Species S. wongi S. wongi S. wongi S. peii S. kiakhtensis S. kiakhtensis Ovis shantungensis
Sources This paper Teilhard & Piveteau (1930) Bai et al. (2019) Young (1932) Boule et al. (1928) Dong et al. (2009) This paper
DP2 L 14.2-14.5 13 10.5 9.5
W 10-10.2 8 7.7 7.4
DP3 L 19.9-20.3 19-23 12.5 14.8
W 13.6-14.2 10-12 11.1 12.8
DP4 L 23.5-23.7 22-24 16.5 18.0-18.5
W 16.8-18.1 12 13.6 15.1-15.5
DP2-4 L 56.2-57.4 52 39.4 41.9
M1 L 26.6-26.7 19? 19.5-24.9 24.0-24.3
W 15.3 15? 18.2-23.9? 15.7-15.8
dp2 L 10.5-10.8
W 6.6-6.7
dp3 L 16.4-16.6
W 9.2
dp4 L 28.2-28.5
W 11.3-11.6
p4 L 13.6 13-15 17.1 12 15
W 8.4 9 8.3 9 9
m1 L 17.9 13-20 17.2 15 25?
W 12.3 11-14 10.7 11 11
m2 L 23.2 21-26 21.6 21 26
W 12.6 12-13 10.7 11.5 13
m3 L 32.2 32 30.2 32
W 11.7 11-13 10.1 12
Table 3 Measurements of the teeth of Spirocerus wongi, compared with related species (mm)
Extracts from the Article
Deciduous upper teeth (Fig. 2B3; Table 3): All of the deciduous upper cheek teeth are completely molarized except DP2. DP2 is elongated, but the posterior lobe is relatively reduced and the posterior fossette (or infundibulum) is shallow. The DP3 has much more wider but shorter posterior lobe relative to the anterior one, and the two fossettes are V-shaped in occlusal view; the mesostyle rib is quite pronounced, the lingual wall of the first lobe is roundish. The DP4 has a much more wider anterior lobe relative to the posterior one; the mesostyle rib is also quite pronounced; the lingual wall of the posterior lobe is more roundish relative to the anterior one. The metacone rib is less developed in all three kinds of tooth. The dimensions of the deciduous teeth are shown in Table 3.
Permanent lower teeth (Fig. 2D1-4; Table 3): Only one partial mandible preserves p4 to m3. The p4 is very advanced in well developed protoconid and metaconid, but other cuspids are extremely reduced; metaconid is column-like but connects with paraconid mesially by a narrow bridge, it doesn’t contact protoconid; there is a narrow and deep groove between metaconid and entoconid. The m1 and m2 are very similar in morphology, except the latter is longer and has more developed goat fold; the infundibulums are very narrow; the lingual cuspids are compressed linguobuccally and the lingual wall is quite flat. The m3 has three lobes, the front two of which are very similar to m2 in shape and size; the third lobe has no infundibulums and is linguobuccally compressed. From the lingual aspect, prominent parastylid and entostylid ribs on m2 and m3 can be seen, and even a rib at the linguo-distal corner of hypoconulid lobe can also be observed, but the mesostylid rib is only slightly developed at the top part of the crown. From the buccal view, no basal pillars can be observed.
Maxilla: One maxilla with left DP4-M1 and right DP2-M1 (IVPP V 28693) (Fig. 2E1-2) can be referred to Ovis shantungensis. The DP2 is deeply worn and the infundibulum has disappeared. The DP3 is moderately worn, with robust paracone and metacone as well as metaconule, the protocone is less developed, with robust parastyle, the posterior lobe is wider than the anterior one. The DP4 has equally developed main cusps, and the styles are also equally developed; the paracone rib is very robust, the anterior lobe is wider than the posterior one. In form, the M1 is very similar with DP4, but much bigger and more hypsodont. The dimensions of the teeth are shown in Table 3.
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