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New fossils of small and medium-sized bovids from the Early Site of Shanshenmiaozui in Nihewan Basin, North China
TONG Hao-Wen, ZHANG Bei, CHEN Xi, WANG Xiao-Min
Vertebrata Palasiatica    2022, 60 (2): 134-168.   DOI: 10.19615/j.cnki.2096-9899.220413
Abstract   (181 HTML34 PDF(pc) (11536KB)(259)  

Shanshenmiaozui site in Nihewan Basin in North China is a recently discovered Early Pleistocene site which yields rich and diverse mammalian fossils. In the fauna, the small and medium-sized bovid fossils are well represented and can be referred to the following taxa: Spirocerus wongi, Gazella sinensis, Ovis shantungensis and Megalovis piveteaui respectively, among which G. sinensis is the dominate species. S. wongi and G. sinensis are mainly represented by horn-cores and partial skull bones as well as mandibles; in addition, metacarpal and/or metatarsal bones were also recognized for all of the four species. The horn-cores are easy to be identified to the species level, while the dentitions and the postcranial bones underwent a series of examinations and comparisons before getting properly determined and referred to the most approximate taxa. Among the postcranial bones, the metapodials, especially to the metacarpal bones special attentions were paid, which are crucial not only for taxonomic identification, but also for phylogenetic and paleoecological reconstructions; the previously misidentified metapodial specimens in Nihewan fauna were reconsidered in this paper. In the SSMZ fauna, the bovid guild is dominated by Gazella and Bison, which indicates steppe was the most important biome in Nihewan Basin during Early Pleistocene.


Materials Field No. Catalog No. (IVPP) Context information
Spirocerus wongi
Partial skull with horn-cores N-07-122 V 28650 E4-8
Juvenile maxilla with DP2-M1 N-06-135 V 28651 E13-5
Left mandible with dp2-m1 N-06-167 V 28652.1 E14-4
Partial right mandible with dp2-m1 N-06-178 V 28652.2 E14-4
Partial right mandible with p4-m3 N-16-046 V 28653 I20-12
Left Mc III+IV N-11-209 V 28655 H20-9
Right naviculo-cuboid N-11-042-2 V 28656.1 G21-7
The fused 2nd+3rd tarsals N-11-042-3 V 28656.2 H20-9
The 1st tarsal N-11-042-4 V 28656.3 G21-7
Right Mt III+IV N-11-042-1 V 28656.4 G21-7
Gazella sinensis
Partial skull with horn-cores N-11-273 V 28657 H22-9
Partial skull with horn-cores N-06-128 V 28658 E14-2
Partial skull with left horn-core N-06-237A V 28659.1 D10-6
Right horn-core N-06-237B V 28659.2 D10-6
Partial skull with right horn-core N-06-166 V 28660 E14-4
Partial skull with right horn-core N-08-04 (02) V 28661 H15-2?
Partial skull with left horn-core N-08-037 V 28662 H16-3
Partial skull with left horn-core N-08-078 V 28663 G15-6
Partial skull with left horn-core N-16-029 V 28664 I20-10
Partial skull with right horn-core N-17-050 V 28665 J15-13
Partial skull with right horn-core N-17-052 V 28666 J16-13
Partial skull with left horn-core N-17-064 V 28667 I16-13
Left horn-core N-07-60 V 28668 E16-11
Left horn-core N-17-067 V 28669 J16-14
Partial skull with left horn-core N-18-75 V 28670 I11-13
Partial skull with right horn-core N-18-85 V 28671 I12-13
Partial skull with left horn-core N-18-168 V 28672 K13-17
Partial maxilla with P3-M1 2007.9.1 V 28673 F19-1
Partial maxilla with M1-3 N-17-176 V 28674 K16-17
Partial right mandible with p2-m3 N-06-220 V 28675 E12-5
Partial left mandible with p2-p3, m1-3 N-06-222 V 28676 D12-5
Partial right mandible with p4-m3 N-08-048 V 28677 H15-4
Partial left mandible with p4-m3 N-08-068 V 28678 H16-4
Partial right mandible with p3-m3 N-08-067 V 28679 H16-4
Partial left mandible with p2-m3 N-08-069 V 28680 H15-5
Partial right mandible with p2, p4-m3 N-11-250-1 V 28681.1 F20-9
Partial left mandible with p2-m3 N-11-250-2 V 28681.2 F20-9
Left mandible with p3-m3 N-16-086 V 28682 K23-13
Partial left mandible with p4-m3 N-17-081 V 28683 I16-14
Partial right mandible with p4-m3 N-17-162 V 28684 K16-17
Left mandible with dp2-4, m1-2 N-17-164-g V 28685.1 K16-17
Right mandible with dp2-4, m1-2 N-17-164-d V 28685.2 K16-17
Partial mandible with p4-m3 N-17-177 V 28686 K16-17
Left humerus (distal) N-11-174 V 28687 F20-9
Left Mc III+IV N-15-050 V 28688 H30-3
3rd phalanx N-15-028 V 28689 G29-4
Left naviculo-cuboid N-15-125 V 28690 H30-6
Distal part of left tibia N-15-246 V 28691 F30-3
Left astragalus N-15-244 V 28692 G29-3
Materials Field No. Catalog No. (IVPP) Context information
Ovis shantungensis
Partial maxilla with left DP4-M1, right DP2-M1 N-07-069-A+B V 28693 F17-1
Nearly complete left Mc III+IV N-11-179 V 28694 H23-9
Megalovis piveteaui
Left radius N-16-051 V 28654 I20-12
Right Mc III+IV N-17-017 V 28695 I17-10
Table 1 Studied fossil specimens of small to medium-sized bovids newly unearthed from SSMZ
Extracts from the Article
The information of all of the studied specimens from SSMZ is listed in Table 1. All of the fossils are reposited in IVPP.
Materials See Table 1.
Postcranial bones: See Table 1.
Materials See Table 1.
Other Images/Table from this Article